The liver is an organ about the size of a football. It sits just under your rib cage on the right side of your abdomen. The liver is essential for digesting food and ridding your body of toxic substances.

The liver plays an important role in many bodily functions from protein production and blood clotting to cholesterol, glucose (sugar), and iron metabolism.

Liver disease can be inherited (genetic). Liver problems can also be caused by a variety of factors that damage the liver, such as viruses, alcohol use and obesity.

Over time, conditions that damage the liver can lead to scarring (cirrhosis), which can lead to liver failure, a life-threatening condition. But early treatment may give the liver time to heal.

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Liver disease doesn’t always cause noticeable signs and symptoms. If signs and symptoms of liver disease occur, the may include:

Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice)

Abdominal pain and swelling

Swelling in the legs and ankles

Itchy skin

Dark urine color

Pale stool color

Chronic fatigue

Nausea or vomiting

Loss of appetite

Tendency to bruise easily

When to see a doctor

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Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you. Seek immediate medical attention if you have abdominal pain that is so severe that you can’t stay still.

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Liver disease has many causes.


Parasites and viruses can infect the liver, causing inflammation that reduces liver function. The viruses that cause liver damage can be spread through blood or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is infected. The most common types of liver infection are hepatitis viruses, including:

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis C

Immune system abnormality

Diseases in which your immune system attacks certain parts of your body (autoimmune) can affect your liver. Examples of autoimmune liver diseases include:

Autoimmune hepatitis

Primary biliary cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

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An abnormal gene inherited from one or both of your parents can cause various substances to build up in your liver, resulting in liver damage. Genetic liver diseases include:


Wilson’s disease

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

Cancer and other growths

Examples include:

Liver cancer

Bile duct cancer

Liver adenoma

Other additional, common causes of liver disease include:

Chronic alcohol abuse

Fat accumulation in the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)

Certain prescription or over-the-counter medications

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of liver disease include:

Heavy alcohol use


Type 2 diabetes

Tattoos or body piercings

Injecting drugs using shared needles

Blood transfusion

Exposure to other people’s blood and body fluids

Unprotected sex

Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins

Family history of liver disease

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Complications of liver disease vary, depending on the cause of your liver problems. Untreated liver disease may progress to liver failure, a life-threatening condition.


To prevent liver disease:

Drink alcohol in moderation.

Avoid risky behavior. Use a condom during sex. If you choose to have tattoos or body piercings, be picky about cleanliness and safety when selecting a shop. Seek help if you use illicit intravenous drugs, and don’t share needles to inject drugs.

Get vaccinated. If you’re at increased risk of contracting hepatitis or if you’ve already been infected with any form of the hepatitis virus, talk to your doctor about getting the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines.

Use medications wisely. Take prescription and nonprescription drugs only when needed and only in recommended doses. Don’t mix medications and alcohol.

Avoid contact with other people’s blood and body fluids. Hepatitis viruses can be spread by accidental needle sticks or improper cleanup of blood or body fluids.

Keep your food safe. Wash your hands thoroughly before eating or preparing foods. If traveling in a developing country, use bottled water to drink, wash your hands and brush your teeth.

Take care with aerosol sprays. Make sure to use these products in a well-ventilated area, and wear a mask when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

Protect your skin. When using insecticides and other toxic chemicals, wear gloves, long sleeves, a hat and a mask so that chemicals don’t absorbed through your skin.

Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity can cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

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